Launching a National Initiative on Ubiquitous Computing
The world today is replete with a large number of gadgets which in a broad sense are disconnected. Such a technological mode will reach its saturation soon. Ubiquitous computing is a world wide initiative started roughly 4 years ago to resolve this practical dilemma; Project Oxygen, Aura, Portalano, are testimony to this international initiative.
Very succinctly, ubiquitous computing will create a ubiquitous environment that combines processors and sensors with network technologies (wireless and otherwise) and intelligent software to create an immersive environment to improve life. It is imperative that we India too become part of the leaders who are developing this technology and impacting the society as whole. Such a broad initiative has to be a cooperative one; in the initial phase we will have six institutions participating in this endeavor (IISc, four IITs, IIIT-Bangalore). As we progress, other IITs, NITs and other institutions will be part of this endeavor. Our mission, goals, project path, and deliverables are mentioned in the following sections..
Developing low-power protocols and services for wireless communications
The implementation of small, mobile, low-cost, energy conscious devices has created unique challenges for today s designers. The drive for a miniaturization and inexpensive fabrication calls for an unprecedented high level of integration and system heterogeneity. Limiting battery lifetimes make energy e ciency a most critical design metric and the real time nature of applications impose strict performance constraints.
To meet these conflicting and unforgiving constraints, we must rethink traditional operating system approaches in embedded wireless communication. General-purpose operating systems developed for broad application are increasingly less suitable for these types of complex real time, power-critical domain specific systems implemented on advanced heterogeneous architectures.
We propose to design low-power protocols and services for this specific requirement.
Multimedia Information Systems on Wireless LANs
Like LAN interconnect multimedia will grow from humble beginning
into a robust, wide-area industry. With advent and the forthcoming of high
speed networks, we anticipate distributed multimedia applications will become
a common place on the desktops. These applications that could be executed
locally or remotely, and could access and retrieve data as text, graphics,
digital audio and video over the network.
General distributed systems mostly rely on a client/server communication
model. A client will make a request for a service; the network will communicate
the request to the server and the subsequent reply from the server back to the
client. It is envisaged that the trading distributed environment must be
enhanced to provide support for more complicated multimedia services such as
voice and video. The distributed multimedia systems are suited to the human
being's complex perception, communicating behavior, and way of acting. It
will not only provide communication capabilities and information sharing
between people, irrespective of local and time, but also easy and immediate
access to widely distributed information banks and information processing
centers. This will be possible on the basis of a variety of information
We propose to design and develop a distributed multimedia system which has more flexible approach on
- Continuous media- the most important characteristic of multimedia to support video, voice and raster image data.
- Better QOS (Quality of Service)
- Single radio channel is used for many multimedia applications.
- To adopt to the slow speed existing I/O Devices.
AI Applications in Distributed Systems Design Issues
Distributed Systems, such as those which contain heterogeneous
operating systems, are crucial to the design and development of new and
innovative products for the future. Differences in Operating Systems will
continue to persist because of the variety of hardware in the market-place,
each with software that provides a vendor with a product having a customerized
or competitive edge over the other. The design and implementation of such
systems pose many problems. As is pointed out in, even in heterogeneous
systems, operating systems of the present generation provide little
or inadequate support for local area networking and distributed processing.
Non-uniformity in the characteristics of current operating systems has
posed additional complexity in the development of heterogeneous local area
networks (LANs). This has good reasons to incorporating AI techniques into the design of
various aspects of these systems. Notable among these efforts
is the knowledge-based distributed operating systems.
Here we propose a revolutionary approach to design distributed systems
using object-oriented techniques that support local area networking and
distributed processing. In this work we concentrate on how AI technique can be
applied to enhance the design of the front-end subsystem of each host in a
distributed environment. The functions of the front-end subsystem that will
be addressed are the following:
- User interface management
- Interconnection in the case of heterogeneous systems
Automated Network Management System
In computer networks the prevailing trend for several years has been the creation of internets, networks consisting of a (possibly
large) set of networks. The size of internets and their geographic
distribution has made managing them a necessary and complex task.
We propose to develop an automated network management system
for assisting and controlling complex internets. The ANM system provides
an integrated set of tools for real-time monitoring, control, and
analysis of internets consisting of diverse network entities such as
internet gateways, packet switching nodes (PSNs), packet radios, and
hosts. It can reduce maintenance costs by providing capabilities such
as fault isolation and alarm generation, so that the network operators
can effectively and efficiently monitor and control networks. ANM also
provides advanced data gathering, analysis, and presentation tools
that enable the network analyst to understand better the behavior of
the network, and to enhance network performance.
The proposed ANM system to provide the management facilities (or services) that are defined by the ISO Standards. They are:
- Fault management- detecting, diagnosing, and recovering from
- Configuration management- defining, changing, monitoring, and
controlling network resources and data
- Accounting- recording usage of network resources and generating
- Performance Analysis- tracking current and long term performance
of the network
- Security- ensuring only secured and authorized access to the
network management system and the network resources
- Resource Management- supporting directories for management network assets
and user information
An Interactive Protocol Tester
An interactive Protocol Tester for design, simulation, verification, and
synthesis of multimedia protocols
A user-friendly graphical tester for the design, verification, simulation,
and synthesis of protocols based on an interactive tool for pertinent and
state diagram designs, special features of this tool are: the capability of
modeling both control and data flows, reduction and analysis, simulation of
network behavior and performance, coding, synthesis, animation and flexible
A protocol correctly designed should satisfy the following logical properties
1) boundedness 2) deadlock-freeness 3) proper termination 4) completeness, and
Protocol analysis refers to the validation of these logical properties
after designing a protocol.
Protocol synthesis is a procedure to design new communication protocols,
using certain rules, correctly and systematically.
Location Management in Mobile Networks
Mobile computing represents a new paradigm that aims to provide
continuous network connectivity to users regardless of their location.
To realize this aim, it is necessary to design distributed algorithms
that explicitly account for host mobility and the physical constraints
associated with such networks.
To facilitate continuous network coverage for mobile hosts, a static
network is augmented with Mobile Support Stations (MSS) that are each
capable of directly communicating with MHs within limited geographical
area ('Cell'), usually via a low-bandwidth wireless medium.
Distributed mobile environment
A mobile network is composed of a fixed network and a wireless network
that interact with each other. The wireless network consists of mobile hosts
which have the capacity to exchange messages with a mobile support station.
The mobile host can communicate with a mobile support station that is within
a short distance from itself. The mobile host may move from one cell to
another while communicating with the fixed network (or with another mobile
host through the fixed network). At every instance the communication of
the cell in which the mobile host is currently located.
The critical and challenging problem of mobile computing is how to cope
with the special characteristics of the mobile wireless environment, to make
balanced usage of computation and communication, and to take advantage of
and support the user's mobility, via:
These allow the systems to dynamically configure themselves, and to make
applications aware of the characteristics of the dynamically changing
connections, such as bandwidths, latencies, etc., so that they can be adapt as
- Location-aware information
- Knowledge of a user's mobility behavior,
- Mobility management support.
Mobile radio channels are severely affected by time-varying losses
due to distance, shadowing (blockage due to buildings, trees, etc.,) and
multipath fading. While the variation in the losses due to distance
and shadowing is relatively slow, the variation due to multipath fading is
In the proposed scheme we design an optimal location management of
mobile hosts such a way that there may not be losses due to fading.
We also look at the slow fading and relocation of nodes during rapid